On map routes of Delhi- Agra- Jaipur- Delhi make a shape of triangle. Since this circuit is most coveted and visited one, in tourism parlance it is popularly known as Golden Triangle India and that is why the tour covering these three historical destinations is known as Golden Triangle Tour of India. The other aspect is this that these places are blessed with cultural and historical heritage of India. Let’s have a look on different cities with their major attractions.
If you talk about Delhi, it is the city of great tourism attraction except being the capital of India. Some major attractions of Delhi are as:
Red Fort: It was constructed by the 5th Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1639 and the construction work ended in 1648. The construction work of the fort was done by Ustad Ahmad. It was the most expensive building of that time. The fort is spread over area about 256 acres and it has height of around 33 meters. In starting it was known as ‘Qila- e- Mubarak. Since it was constructed by using red sandstone, it was named as ‘Lal Qila’. The fort has two gates: one is Lahori gate and the other is Delhi gate. The fort is situated at the bank of river Yamuna and the gulf around the fort is filled with the water of Yamuna. Red fort has also made its position in UNESCO’s world heritage site. It was added in the year of 2007. It is a prudently planned layout and magnificent structure. Though the fort has undergone many changes during British rule but it has been able to maintain its allurement of its captivating architecture. The different prominent parts of red fort are Diwan-e-aam, Diwan-e-khas, Tashib-khana, Nahr-e-bihisht, Mumtaz Mahal, Naubatkhana, Hammam, Moti Masjid, Chhatta Chowk, Rang Mahal, and Hira Mahal.
Qutub Minar: It is listed in UNESCO world heritage site. It is situated in Mehrauli area of Delhi. Qutub Minar is a five Storey minaret. The construction of the minaret was started by Qutub-Ud-Din-Aibak, but his other successors also made contributions to its construction. It is said to be inspired by Minaret of Jam of Afghanistan. Its architecture also includes looped bells, garlands, and lotus borders into its carving. Inscription on the minarets reveal history of its construction. This minaret has been inspiration for other minarets after its construction.
Din Panah or Old Fort: The foundation of a reinforced fort was started by Sher Shah Suri, but before the completion of fort Sher Shah died and the remaining work was completed by Humayun. 20 meter tall and 50 meter thick wall protects Purana Qila. The wall is broad at base and tapers as it gains height. One side of the wall of fort touches zoo and other side opens towards the Pragati Maidan where international fests and events are organised. The fort is built on the banks of river Yamuna and its water is used to fill the moat that surrounds the fort. The fort has three gates and major parts of the fort are Kila-e-Kona Mosque, Sher Mandal, Khairul Manzil, Hammamkhana. There are many domes of Sufis in the neighborhood of this place. Matka Peer is one of them. The devotees come here to do prayers and leave Matka or earthen pitcher in gratitude.
Humayun’s Tomb: It is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun. The Tomb was constructed by the Humayun’s first wife Bega Begum. The design was given by MirakMirza and his son. It was the first architecture which was made by using red sandstone. The Persian Garden style “charbhagh” was used in Humayun’s tomb for the first time. The tomb is an excellent example of Persian style of Mughal architecture and was listed under UNESCO world heritage site in 1993.
India Gate: It is a war memorial which was originally known as All India War Memorial. It is located near President House. It was built in the memory of 70000 soldiers of British Indian Army who died during the period of 1914-21 in First World War. India Gate is illuminated from 7 pm to 9:30 pm every day. Republic Day Parade starting from President House passes around the India Gate. Amar Jawan Jyoti, in front of India Gate, serves as memorial of unknown soldiers who died in defence of India. It was installed in 1971.
Lotus Temple: It is a Bahai House of Worship situated in Delhi, India.This is a temple having no statue and no religious rituals. The temple just encourages people for being spiritual. Temple provides information to the visitors by means of announcements. Temple is well known for its lotus like structure. The other attractions of the temple are large ground covered with grass, dome shaped prayer hall etc. People just don’t go there for experiencing its beauty only, but they also go for the special prayer and meditation held at temple for 5 minutes in every one hour. People having interest in research come in the library of temple; here they read religious text and conduct research according to their need.
Destinations to visit in Agra are Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and handicraft market. Fatehpur Sikri is near Agra and here you can visit famous Jama Mosque.
Taj Mahal: It is the symbol of eternity of love and a rich example of Indian history in Mughal architecture. It is a monument which was made by Shah Jahan in the memory of his loving queen Mumtaj and reminds about the true love of Shah Jahan and Mumtaj. Taj Mahal is situated in Agra on the south bank of the river Yamuna. It was listed under UNESCO world heritage site in 1983 and has been winner of the New Seven Wonders of World (2002-2007). Construction of Taj was done in between the years 1632-1643 and surrounding decoration was done after five years. The architecture of the Taj was done in blend of Mughal and Persian architecture styles. Unlike the other emperors before him, Shah Jahan promoted white marble instead of red sandstone. In the main chamber, there are resembling graves of Shah Jahan and Mumtaj while the real graves are under the level. The resembling grave of Shah Jahan makes an only asymmetry in the Taj: it is in beside of Mumtaj’s grave. The overall structure of the complex is a square. The structure of Taj is completely symmetrical and has four minarets; one at its each corner. The minarets have a height of about 40 meters.The decorations were done using paint and carvings. Calligraphy of Persian poem and Arabic Ayaat is done on exterior structure.Carved flowers on marble, incised paintings, marble jali or lattice work, plant motifs reflective tiles were used in the decoration of the Taj. The garden is designed in Charbagh style of Mughal architecture. In the center of the garden there is a reflecting pool in north- south axis; it shows reflected image of Taj.
Kalakriti Mohabbat- e –Taj Show: A show named ‘Mohabbat- e -Taj’, is held at Kalakriti Cultural and Convention Center in Agra to depict the saga of Mumtaj and Shah Jahan. This show is an effort to hold up the cultural and historical heritage of India. The show presents splendid lifestyle of Mughal dynasty.
Agra Fort: It is a harmonious architecture, a blend of Islamic and other Indian regional architecture styles. Influences of Gwalior, Rajasthan, Bengal and Gujarat can be seen here. Agra Fort is situated about 200 km from Delhi and 2.5 km northwest of famous Taj Mahal. It is one of the forts built by Mughal Emperors. Agra Fort doesn’t have a defensive structure. It neither consists of high ramparts nor high towers. But because of its double fortification the fort was secure. There were many reinforced gates, built in Rajput architecture style. The main attractions of this fort are Akbar Mahal, Jahangir Mahal, Khas Mahal, Sheesh Mahal, Diwan-e-khas, Diwan-e-aam, Nageena Masjid, Moti Masjid, Shivaji Darwaza, Ratan Singh ki Haveli, Musamman Burj etc. Agra Fort is listed under UNESCO world heritage site in 1983 during the 7th session.
Taj Mahotsava: The best time to have a look of detailed craft market is to visit Agra during the festival Taj Mahotsava. This festival mainly is all about handicraft and craft from all over India. During the normal visit you can find handicraft shops near Taj Mahal.
Presently the capital city of Rajasthan, Jaipur, was a principality of Kachhwaha Rajput. It is home to several historical monuments, buzzing bazaars, lovely handicrafts, beautiful temples and colorful culture. Amber Fort is a famous destination in Jaipur; except this you can visit City palace, Hawa Mahal and Jantar Mantar.
Amber Fort: Amber Fort is one of the major attractions of Jaipur. Amer town is spread over an area of 4 square kilometers and at a distance of 11 kilometers from Jaipur. Town Amber was mainly built by MEENAS. Amber Fort was founded by Raja Alan Singh, a ruler of Meenas, in 967 CE. But the major part of the fort was built in 1599 by Raja Man Singh: Kachwaha King of Amer. Amber Palace is popular for its style of Hindu and Rajput art. The palace is surrounded by large rampart and numerous gates. Amber palace is constructed using red sandstone and marble. The palace is near to ‘Maota lake’ and located at ‘cheel ka teela’ (hill of eagles) on Arawali range of hills. The palace and Jaigarh Fort are considered one complex, as both are connected by an underground tunnel. This tunnel was used as an exit during the war time for exit of royal people and others to indomitable Jaigarh Fort. In 2013, the fort was declared as UNESCO world heritage site.The artistic and affluent palace has four levels and each level consists of a courtyard. The major parts of this fort are Diwan-e-aam, Diwan-e-khas, Seesh Mahal and Sukh Nivas.
City Palace: It is the heart of Jaipur. It is a unique palace complex situated in central northeast part of Jaipur, includes Chandra Mahal, Mukut Mahal, Maharani’s Palace and Mubarak Mahal and other buildings. It is related to the Maharaja of Jaipur and Kachhwaha Rajput clan. Chandra Mahal is now converted in a museum and other major parts are now used as royal residence. The palace was built in between 1729 and 1732.
Hawa Mahal: It is a beautiful palace complex, constructed of red and pink sandstone. Famous name “pink city” is given to Jaipur because of the pink element in its décor. It was built in 1799 AD by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh. This palace was inspired by Khetri Mahal. The architecture of the palace includes good Venturi effect for the good air ventilation and hence palace is a pleasant attraction during summer season. This five storey palace consists of 953 small windows decorated with lattice-work. Rear view too of this complex is so beautiful that it looks like front view. Architecture of the palace complex is blend of Rajput architecture and Islamic architecture.
Jantar Mantar: The construction of Jantar Mantar was finished in 1734. It is listed under UNESCO world heritage site. It is a collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments for measurement of time, tracking of stars, speed of planets. The monument was built by Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh II. Instruments in this monument allow observing astronomical positions with naked eyes. The instruments in monument are Chakra Yantra, Dakshin Bhitti Yantra, Digamsha Yantra, Dhruva Darshak Yantra, Disha Yantra, Jai Prakash Yantra, Kapil Yantra etc.